WILD BEE ID GUIDE
References

GENERAL NOTE:  

Identifications of bees in this website's guide were made possible by the expertise and assistance of Dr. John L. Neff of the Central Texas Melittological Institute; Dr. John S. Ascher of the National University of Singapore; and Dr. Karen Wright of Texas A & M University.  We are additionally grateful to Dr. Neff for his generous help in supplying information on species behavior and range, and for recommending many of the resources listed below.

BOOKS:

Buchanan, Stephen L. and Gary Paul Nabhan. The Forgotten Pollinators.  Washington, D.C.:  Island Press, 1996.  Print.

Danforth, Bryan N, Robert L. Minckley, and John L. Neff.  The Solitary Bees:  Biology, Evolution, Conservation.  Princeton:  Princeton University Press, 2019.  Print.

Evans, Arthur V.  National Wildlife Federation Field Guide to Insects and Spiders of North America. New York:  Sterling Publishing, 2008.  Print.

Frankie, Gordon W., Robbin W. Thorp, Rollin E. Coville, and Barbara Ertter.  California Bees & Blooms. Berkeley:  Heyday, 2014.  Print. 

Goulson, Dave.  Bumblebees:  Behavior, Ecology, and Conservation, 2nd ed.  Oxford:  Oxford University Press, 2010. Print.

Hogue, Charles L.  Insects of the Los Angeles Basin, 3rd ed.  Los Angeles:  Los Angeles:  Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County, 2015. Print.

 

Holm, Heather. Pollinators of Native Plants:  Attract, Observe and Identify Pollinators and Beneficial Insects with Native Plants. Minnetonka, MN:   Pollination Press, 2014.  Print.

Koch, Jonathan, James Strange, and Paul Williams. Bumblebees of the Western United States.  Washington, D.C., United States Department of Agriculture Forest Service (with Pollinator Partnership), 2012. Print.  Available as pdf at website of the USDA  Forest Service.   <https://www.fs.fed.us/wildflowers/pollinators/documents/BumbleBeeGuideWestern2012.pdf>

Lebuhn, Gretchen. A Field Guide to the Common Bees of California, Including Bees of the Western United States. Berkeley:  University of California Press, 2013. Print. 

 

Marshall, Stephen A.  Insects:  Their Natural History and Diversity.   Buffalo:  Firefly Books, 2006.  Print.

Michener, Charles D.  The Bees of the World, 2nd ed.  Baltimore:  The Johns Hopkins University Press, 2007.  Print.

 

Michener, Charles D.  The Social Behavior of the Bees. Cambridge:  Harvard University Press, 1974.  Print.

Michener, Charles D., Ronald J. McGinley and Bryan N.. Danforth, The Bee Genera of North and Central America (Hymenoptera:  Apoidea).  Washington, D.C.:  Smithsonian Institution Press, 1994.  Print.

 

Milne, Lorus, and Margery Milne.  National Audubon Society Field Guide to Insects and Spiders.  New York:  Knopf,  2006. Print.

Mitchell, Theodore. B.  Bees of the Eastern United States, vol. 1.  Raleigh:  The North Carolina Agricultural Experiment Station, 1960.  Print.

 

Mitchell, Theodore. B.  Bees of the Eastern United States, vol. 2.  Raleigh:  The North Carolina Agricultural Experiment Station, 1960.  Print.

Richardson, Alfred.  Plants of the Rio Grande Delta.  Austin:  University of Texas, 1990.  Print.

Richardson, Alfred and Ken King.  Plants of Deep South Texas.  College Station:  Texas A & M University Press, 2011.  Print.

Williams, Paul, Robbin Thorp, Leif Richardson & Sheila Colla. Bumble Bees of North America. Princeton:  Princeton University Press, 2014.  Print.

 

Wilson, Joseph S., and Olivia Messinger Carril. The Bees in Your Backyard:  A Guide to North America's Bees.  Princeton:  Princeton University Press, 2016.  Print.  [This phenomenal popular guide offers an an ambitious sampling of both East and West Coast bees.]

Xerxes Society, and Eric Mader.  Attracting Native Pollinators:  Protecting North America's Bees and Butterflies:  The Xerces Soceity Guide.  North Adams, MA:  Storey Publishing, 2010.  Print.
 

GENERAL BEE IDENTIFICATION  DATABASES:

Ascher, John S., and John Pickering. Discover Life Bee Species Guide and World Checklist (Hymenoptera: Apidae: Anthophila. Discover Life.  Web. 1 Jan. 2019.  <www.discoverlife.org/20/q?search=Apoidea>.  

Bug Guide.  Iowa State University Department of Entomology. Web.  2019.  <http://bugguide.net> . 

Packer, Laurence and Julio A. Genaro and Cory S. Sheffield. The Bee Genera of Eastern Canada.  Canadian Journal of Arthropod IdentificationWeb.  25 September 2007.   <http://cjai.biologicalsurvey.ca/pgs_03/pgs_03_main.html>.   

Pascarella, John B.  The Bees of Florida.  University of Florida Department of Entomology and Nematology.  Web.  2 Jan. 2006. <http://entnemdept.ufl.edu/HallG/Melitto/Intro.htm>.

​PRINT  JOURNALS AND   WEB  RESOURCES  CONSULTED:

Ackerman, Arthur J.,  “The Carpenter-Bees of the United States of the Genus Xylocopa.” Journal of the New York Entomological Society, vol. 2.3 (Sept. 1916):   196-232.  Print.  [Xylocopa]

Alves-dos-Santos, Isabel. "Morphological and behavioral aspects of Ancyloscelis Latreille males (Anthophoridae, Apoidea)." Revista brasileira da zoologia, vol.16.2 (2010): 37-43. Print.  

Ashmead, William H. “Classification of the Bees, or the Superfamily Apoidea.” Transactions of the American Entomological Society, vol. 26.1 (1899): 49–100 at 61.  Print.  [Tetraloniella] 

Ayala, Ricardo, Terry Griswold and Stephen Bullock. “The Native Bees of Mexico.” Biological Diversity of Mexico:  Origins and Distribution, edited by T. P. Ramamoorthy, Robert Bye and Antonio.  Oxford:  Oxford University Press (1993), pp. 179 – 227.​

Baker J.R. “Taxonomy of Five Nearctic Subgenera of Coelioxys (Hymenoptera; Megachilidae).” The University of Kansas Science Bulletin, vol. 50.12, (1975):  649-730.  [Coelioxys]

Baker, J.R., E.D. Kuhn, & S.B. Bambara.  “Nests and immature stages of leafcutter bees (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae).”  Journal of the Kansas Entomological Society, vol.  58.2 (1985): 290–313.   [Megachile]

Bees of Maryland: A Field Guide.  Washington, D.C.:  North American Bee Collaborative, 2017.  Print.  Available at:  <http://bio2.elmira.edu/fieldbio/beesofmarylandbookversion1.pdf>.  [General]

Buchmann, Stephen. “Bombus sonorous, the Sonoran Bumblebee.”  United States Department of Agriculture Forest Service.  Web.  < https://www.fs.fed.us/wildflowers/pollinators/pollinator-of-the-month/SonoranBumblebee.shtml>.  Accessed 2 Nov. 2018.  [Bumble bees:  Bombus sonorous]

Buchmann, Stephen. “The ecology of oil flowers and their bees.” Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics, vol. 18 (1987):  343–369. Print. [Centris]

“Bumble Bee Identification.”  Texas Parks & Wildlife.  Web. <https://tpwd.texas.gov/huntwild/wild/wildlife_diversity/nongame/native-pollinators/bumblebee-id.phtml>.  Accessed 2 Nov. 2018.  [Bumble bees]

 

“Bumble Bee Life Cycle.”  Texas Parks & Wildlife.  Web. < https://tpwd.texas.gov/huntwild/wild/wildlife_diversity/nongame/native-pollinators/bumblebee-life.phtml>.  Accessed 2 Nov.  2018.  [Bumble bees]

Burrows, Skylar, Morgan Christman, L. R. Spears, Allan Smith-Pardo, Steven. Price, Ricardo A. Ramirez, Terry Griswold and Amanda  J. Redford.  "Heriades."  Exotic Bee ID.  USDA APHIS Identification Technology Program (ITP) and Utah State University. Web. 2018.  Accessed January 3, 2020. <http://idtools.org/id/bees/exotic/factsheet.php?name=16626>  [Heriades]


Butler, Jr., George D. “The distribution and host plants of leafcutter bees in Arizona.” Arizona Agricultural Experiment Station Technical Bulletin, vol. 167 (May 1965): 1-19.  [Megachile]

“Buzz Pollination.”  Leonard Lab.  Web. < http://www.anneleonard.com/buzz-pollination/>.  Accessed 4 Jan. 2016.  [A great recording and video of a bumble bee practicing buzz pollination can be viewed here.]

Cameron, Syndey A., Jeffrey D. Lozier, James P. Strange, Jonathan B. Koch, Nils Cordes, Leellen F. Solter, and Terry L. Griswold. “Patterns of widespread decline in North American bumble bees.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, vol. 108.1  (11 January 2011): 662-667.  Print.  [Bumble bees]

Camillo, E., C.A. Garofalo, and J.C. Seranno, J.C. “Observacoes preliminarias sobre a biologia da Melitoma segmentaria (Hymenoptera, Anthophoridae).” Ciência e Cultura, vol. 40.7 (1988):  914.  Print.   [Melitoma]

Cane, James H., Terry Griswold, and Frank D. Parker, “Substrates and Materials Used for Nesting by North American Osmia Bees (Hymenoptera: Apiformes: Megachilidae).” Ann. Entomological Society of America, vol. 100.3 (2007): 350-358.  [Osmia]

“Carpenter Bees.”  United States Department of Agriculture Forestry Service. Web. <http://www.fs.fed.us/wildflowers/pollinators/pollinator-of-the-month/carpenter_bees.shtml>.   Accessed 21 July 2014. [Xylocopa]

"Centris Bees, the Bean Tree Pollinators."  Arizona:  Beetles, Bugs, Birds and More.  Web.  <http://arizonabeetlesbugsbirdsandmore.blogspot.com/2011/05/centris-bees-bean-tree-polinators.html>.  Accessed 18 Oct. 2018.  [Centris]

Chandler, L. D., and M. D. Heilman. “Hymenoptera associated with sunflower in the Lower Rio Grande Valley of Texas with notes on the relative abundance, visitation times and foraging.” Southwest Entomologist, vol. 7.3 (1982): 170-173. Print.  [Svastra]

Cockerell, T. D. A. Catalogo de las abejas de Mexico. [Catalog of the Bees of Mexico.].  Mexico:  Ofic. Tip. de la Secretaria de Fomento, 1899.  Print.  Available here:  https://archive.org/details/catalogodelasabe00cock/page/n1 [Melissoptila (Melissodes pinguis velutinellus]

Cockerell, T. D. A., “ Descriptions and records of bees – XLI”.  The Annals and Magazine of Natural History, vol. 8.9 (1912): 554-568.  Print.  [Xylocopa]

Cockerell, T. D. A. "Diadasia Patton: a genus of bees.” The American Naturalist, vol. 39.466 (October 1905): 741-745.  Print. [Diadasia]

Cockerell, T. D. A., “Neotropical Bees, Principally Collected by Professor Bruner in Argentina." Transactions of the American Entomological Society (1890-), vol. 44, no. 1 (1918):  25–38.  Print.  [Diadasia tropicalis]

Cockerell, T. D. A. “New and little-known bees.  Transactions of the American Entomological Society, vol. 24 (1897): 144-162. Print.  [Melissoptila (Melissodes pinguis velutinellus)] 

Cockerell, T. D. A. “The North American Bees of the Genus Nomada.”  Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, vol. 55 (1903):  580–614.  [Nomada]
 

Cockerell, T. D. A, "The North American bees of the genus Nomia." Proceedings of the United States National Museum, vol. 28 (1911): 297-298. [Nomia]

Cockerell, Wilmatte, “Collecting Bees at Gualan, Guatemala,” Canadian Entomologist, vol. 44 (1912): 277-282.  Print. [Xylocopa]

Cockerell, Wilmatte P. “Collecting Bees in Southern Texas.” Journal of the New York Entomological Society, vol. 25.3 (1917): 187–193. [Tetraloniella / Xenoglosses, Megachile chichimeca (Megachile disparipennis)] 

“Common name: African honey bee, Africanized honey bee, killer bee, scientific name:Apis mellifera scutellata Lepeletier (Insecta: Hymenoptera: Apidae).” Featured Creatures.  University of Florida Department of Entomology and Nematology.  Web.  . <http://entnemdept.ufl.edu/creatures/misc/bees/ahb.htm>  Accessed 26 Dec. 2018.  [Apis mellifera]

Cortopassi-Laurino, Marilda, Mariana Taniguchi, and Boff, Samuel, “Sobre ninhos de Melitoma segmentaria (Apidae: Apinae: Emporini) em formo artesenal  de pao. ”  Associacao paulista de apicultores criadores de abelhas melificas europeias (APACAME).  Web. . <http://apacame.org.br/site/revista/mensagem-doce-n-145-marco-de-2018/artigo-4/>.  Accessed 20 Nov. 2018.   [Melitoma] 

Cresson, Ezra Townsend. “Descriptions of new species of North American bees. Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, vol. 30 (1878): 181-221 at 209-210 and 216-217. Print.  [Melissoptila (Melissodes otomita and Melissodes pinguis);  Anthophora capistrata]

Cresson, Ezra Townsend. “Descriptions of new North American Hymenoptera in the collection of the American Entomological Society.” Transactions of the American Entomological Society, vol. 6-7 (1878-79): 61-136.  Print.  [Ceratina, Exomalopsis, Megachile]

Cresson, Ezra Townsend.  Hymenoptera Texana. Philadelphia:  American Entomological Society (Nov. 1872).  Print.

Daly, Howell V. “Bees of the genus Ceratina in America North of Mexico (Hymenoptera: Apoidea).  University of California Publications in Entomology, vol. 74 (1973): 1-113. [Ceratina]

Danforth, Brian N. 1996. "Phylogenetic analysis and taxonomic revision of the Perdita subgenera Macrotera, Macroteropsis, Macroterella and Cockerellula (Hymenoptera: Andrenidae)." University of Kansas Science Bulletin, vol. 55 (1996): 635-692. Print.  [Macrotera]

Dorchin, Achik, Bryan N. Danforth, and Terry Griswold, “A new genus of eucerine bees endemic to southwestern North America revealed in phylogenetic analyses of the Eucera complex (Hymenoptera: Apidae: Eucerini). Arthrophod Systematics and Phylogeny, vol. 76.2 (2018): 215-234. Print. [Tetraloniella; Eucera classification]

Dorchin, Achik., M.M. López-Uribe, C.J. Praz, Terry Griswold, and Bryan N. Danforth.  “Phylogeny, new generic-level classification, and historical biogeography of the Eucera complex (Hymenoptera: Apidae).” Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, vol. 119 (2018):  81-92. Print. [Tetraloniella; Eucera classification]

Downing, Jason, Haydee Borrero and  Hong Liu. “Differential impacts from an extreme cold spell on subtropical vs. tropical specialist bees in southern Florida.”  Ecosphere, vol. 7.5 (2016):  1-9. [Centris]

Downing, Jason. L., and Hong Liu. “Friend or foe? Impacts of the introduced tropical oil bee Centris nitida on a threatened and specialized native mutualism in Southern Florida.” Biological Invasions, 14.10 (2012): 2175–2185. [Centris]
 

Droege, Sam, “Andrenidae, Colletidae, Melittidae:  A Guide to Their Identification in Eastern North America.”  Web.  9 Dec. 2008. <http://www.slideshare.net/sdroege/eastern-north-american-andrenidae-bees-taxonomy-distribution-identification-presentation>.  Accessed 1 Dec. 2018.

Droege, Sam, "Guide to the Bee Genera within Apidae of Eastern North America." Parts I and II.  Web.  27 Jan. 2009. <http://www.slideshare.net/sdroege/guide-to-the-bee-genera-within-apidae-of-eastern-north-america-part-1-presentation?next_slideshow=1> and https://www.slideshare.net/sdroege/guide-to-the-bee-genera-within-apidae-of-eastern-north-america-part-2-presentation>.  Accessed 1 Dec. 2018.

Droege, Sam, “Halictidae:  A Guide to Their Identification in Eastern North America.”  Web.  7 Jan. 2009. <https://www.slideshare.net/sdroege/identification-of-eastern-north-american-bee-genera-in-the-family-halictidae-presentation>.  Accessed 26 May 2019.

Droege, Sam, “Identification Guide to the Megachilidae Genera of Eastern North America”.  Web.  8 Jan. 2009.  <http://www.slideshare.net/sdroege/identification-guide-to-the-megachilidae-genera-of-eastern-north-america-presentation?related=1>. Accessed 1 Dec. 2018.

Droege, Sam, Molly G. Rightmyer, Corsy S. Sheffield and Sean G. Brady, “New synonymies in the bee genus Nomada from North America (Hymenoptera: Apidae).”  Zootaxa, no. 2661 (2010): 1-32.  [Nomada]

 

Dusmet & Alonso, Jose Maria, “Los Xylocopa (Hymenoptera:  Apidae) en las colecciones de Madrid.” Trabajos del Museo Nacional de Ciencias Naturales (España), Serie Xoologica, no. 49 (June 1924), 1 – 56.  Print.  [Xylocopa]

Eickwort, George C., K. R. Eickwort and E. G. Linsley, "Observations on Nest Aggregations of the bees Diadasia olivacea and D. diminuta (Hymenoptera: Anthophoridae)," The Journal of the Kansas Entomological Society, vol. 50, no. 1 (Jan. 1977): 1-17.  Print [Diadasia diminuta]

Eickwort, George C., Robert W. Matthews and James Carpenter. "Observations on the nesting behavior of Megachile rubi and M. texana with a discussion of the significance of soil nesting in the evolution of megachilid Bees (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae).  Journal of the Kansas Entomological Society, vol. 54.3 (July 1981): 557-570. Print. [Megachile texana]

Frankie,  Gordon W., R. E. Coville, J. C. Pawele, C. C. Jadallah, S. B. Vinson & L. E. S. Martinez, “Bee-Flower-People Relationships, Field Biologists, and Conservation in Northwest Urban Costa Rica and Beyond.”  Zoosymposia, vol. 2 (2018): 18–28.  [Centris]

Fischer, Roland L., “A nest of Heriades variolosus Cresson (Hymentoptera:  Megachilidae).” Canadian Entomologist, vol.  87.1 (Jan 1955): pp. 33-36.  [Heriades]

Fischer, Roland L. “Observations on the Nesting Habits of Megachilid Bees.” Journal of the Kansas Entomological Society, vol. 24.2 (1951): 46–50. [Megachile]

Frankie, Gordon W., S. B. Vinson, Linda E. Newstrom and John F. Barthell, “Nest Site and Habitat Preferences of Centris Bees in the Costa Rican Dry Forest.” Biotropica, vol. 20.4 (Dec., 1988): 301-310. [Centris]

Freire, Liliana, Glafiro José Alanís Flores,, Ricardo Ayala Barajas, Humberto Quiroz Martínez and Carlos Gerardo Velazco Macías, “The large carpenter bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae: Xylocopa spp.) of Nuevo Leon, Mexico. Journal of Pollination Ecology, vol. 7 (2012): 1-4.  Print.  [Xylocopa]

Garrett, Felipe. “Mulher: Feliz, Danuncia Urban dedicou a vida à ciência:  Zoóloga fala sobre escolhas e a satisfação que a ciência trouxe à sua vida.”  RCP TV.  Rede Globo. July 3, 2014. Web.  December 10, 2018.  < http://redeglobo.globo.com/rpctv/noticia/2014/03/mulher-feliz-danuncia-urban-dedicou-vida-ciencia.html >  [About entomologist Danuncia Urban]

Geiser, S. W., “Notes on Some Workers in Texas Entomology, 1839-1880.” The Southwestern Historical Quarterly, vol. 49, no. 4 (Apr., 1946), pp. 593-598. [Texas entomologist Gustave Belfarge].

Genaro, J. A. “Especie nueva de Melissoptila para Cuba y La Española (Hymenoptera: Apidae)”.  Avicennia, vol. 14 (2001): 61-64. Print.  Available at:  <http://www.academia.edu/1470845/Genaro_J._A._2001._Especie_nueva_de_Melissoptila_para_Cuba_y_La_Espa%C3%B1ola_Hymenoptera_Apidae_._Avicennia_14_61-64>  [Melissoptila]

Gonzalez, Victor H., Enrique Moreno and Miriam H. Richards. "Nesting biology of a neotropical bee, Ceratina mexicana currani Schwarz (Hymenoptera: Apidae: Xylocopinae). Journal of the Kansas Entomological Society, vol. 77 (2004): 58-90. [Ceratina]

Grahm, Jason R., Jamie Ellis, Glenn Hall and Catherine Zettel Nalen. “Anthophora abrupta Say.”  University of Florida, Department of Entomology and Nemotology.  Web.  <http://entnemdept.ufl.edu/creatures/misc/bees/anthophora_abrupta.htm>.  Accessed 15 Nov.  2018.  [Anthophora]

Griswold,  Terry L., and Charles D. Michner, "The Classification of the Osmiini of the Eastern Hemisphere (Hymenoptera, Megachilidae).  Journal of the Kansas Entomological Society, vol.70.3 (July 1997):  207-253.  Print.  [Heriades]

Grisworld, Terry L. and Molly G. Rightmyer, “A revision of the subgenus Osmia (Diceratosmia), with descriptions of four new species (Hymenoptera Megachilidae).  Zootaxa,  vol. 4337.1 (2017): 001–037.  [Osmia]

Hobbs, G.A., & C.E. Lilly. Ecology of the species of Megachile Latreille in the mixed prairie region of southern Alberta with special reference to pollination of alfalfa.”   Ecology, vol. 35.4 (1954): 453–462.

Holland, Jennifer S.  "The Plight of the Honey Bee."  National Geographic.  10 May 2013.  Print.  Available at:   <http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2013/13/130510-honeybee-bee-science-european-union-pesticides-colony-collapse-epa-science/ [Apis mellifera]

Holmberg, E. L. “Apidae Argentinae. Generis Psaenythia Gerstaecker.” Anales del museo nacional de Buenos Aires, vol. 31 (1921): 249-354.  Print.

Holmberg, E. L.  “Delectus Hymenopterologicus Argentinus.” Anales del museo nacional de Buenos Aires, vol. 2.3 (1903):  377-468.  Print.  [Svastra]

Holmberg, E. L. “Sobre abejas de Mendoza.” Apuntes de historia natural, vol. 1.1 (1909): 40. Print. 

“Honey Bees Originated from Asia, Not Africa.” Entomology Today.  25 Aug. 2014.  Entomological Society of America.  Web. <https://entomologytoday.org/2014/08/25/study-finds-honey-bees-originated-from-asia-not-africa/>.  Accessed 7 Dec. 2018.  [Apis mellifera]

Hurd, Paul D., Jr.  “Bamboo-Nesting Carpenter Bees (Genus Xylocopa Latreille) of the Subgenus Stenoxylocopa Hurd and Moure (Hymenoptera: Anthophoridae).” Journal of the Kansas Entomological Society,  vol. 51.4 (October 1978):  746-764.  Print. [Xylocopa strandi]

 

Hurd, Paul D., Jr., Wallace E. LaBerge, and E. Gorton Linsley.  "Principal  Sunflower  Bees  of  North  America  with  Emphasis  on the  Southwestern  United  States (Hymenoptera:  Apoidea)."   Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology, no. 310.  Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Press, 1980.  Print.  [Exomalopsis; Svastra sabinensis and Svastra petulca] 

Hurd, Paul D., Jr., and Charles D. Michner, "The Megachiline Bees of California (Hymenoptera:  Megachilidae)."  Bulletin of the California Insect Survey, vol. 3 (1955):  1-247.  Print.  [Heriades]

“Key to Green Halictid Diversity.”   University of Virginia.  Web.  21 June 2015. <http://people.virginia.edu/~thr8z/Bee_Diversity/Green_Halictid_Key/>.  Accessed 15 Dec. 2018.

Kopec, Kelsey, and Lori Ann Burd,  “Pollinators in peril:  A systematic status review of North American and Hawaiian native bees.”  Center for Biological Diversity.   Web.  February 2017.   <http://worldbeeproject.org/latest-posts/2017/8/23/pollinators-in-peril>.  Accessed October 31, 2018.  [General survey of United States Bee Species]

Krombein, Karl. "Another note on the nesting habits of Megachile texana Cresson." Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington, vol. 55 (1970): 84-85.  Print.  [Megachile]

Krombein, Karl, Trap-nesting Wasps and Bees:  Life Histories, Nests and Associates.  Washington, D.C.:  Smithsonian Press, 1967.  Print.  [Megachile]

LaBerge, Wallace E. “The genera of bees of the tribe Eucerini in North and Central America (Hymenoptera, Apoidea). American Museum novitates, no. 1837 (1957): 1-44 at 37-38. Print. [Melissoptila]

LaBerge, Wallace E. “Notes on the North and Central American bees of the genus Svastra Holmberg (Hymenoptera: Apidae).” Journal of the Kansas Entomological Society, vol. 31.4 (Oct. 1958): 266-273.  [Svastra]

LaBerge, Wallace E. “Records of the genus Svastra in North America with the description of a new species (Hymenoptera: Apidae).” Journal of the Kansas Entomological Society, vol. 36.1 (Jan 1963):   52-56. Print.  [Svastra]

LaBerge, Wallace E., “A Revision of the Bees of the Genus Melissodes in North and Central America.  Part III (Hymentoptera, Apidae).”  University of Kansas Science Bulletin, Vol. 42.5 (1961):  283-663.   Print. [Melissodes]

LaBerge, Wallace. E. “Revision of the bees of the genus Tetraloniella in the New World (Hymenoptera: Apidae).” Illinois Natural History Survey Bulletin, vol. 36.3 (2001): 67-162.  Print.  The full text of this book is available here via Bug Guide:  < https://bugguide.net/node/view/1486124>   [Tetraloniella]

“Leafcutter Bees.”  Colorado State University Extension.  Web.  20 July 2014. <http://www.ext.colostate.edu/pubs/insect/05576.html>.  Accessed 20 Dec. 2018.  [Megachile] 

Linsley, E. Gorton. “Observations on some matinal bees at flowers of Cucurbita, Ipomoea and Datura in desert areas of New Mexico and Southeastern Arizona.” Journal of the New York Entomological Society, vol. 68.1 (March 1960): 13-20.  Print. [Melitoma; Ipomoea specialists]

Linsley, E. Gorton, MacSwan, and J.W., Michener, C.D.  “Nesting biology and associates of Melitoma (Hymenoptera, Anthophoridae).” Entomology [University of. California], no. 90 (1980): 1-45. Print.  [Melitoma]

Lizars, William Home, “Nest of the Common Humble-Bee (B, terrestris)”. Engraving.  From William Jardine’s The Naturalist’s Library, vol. vi. (Entomology).  (Edinburgh:  1840). [Bombus]

"Lower Rio Grande Valley National Wildlife Refuge."  U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.  Web.    <https://www.fws.gov/refuge/Lower_Rio_Grande_Valley/wildlife_habitat.html>.  Accessed 4 Nov. 2018.  [Lower Rio Grande Valley Habitats]

MacPhail, Victoria J., Leif L. Richardson and Shiela R. Colla, “Incorporating citizen science, museum specimens, and field work into the assessment of extinction risk of the American Bumble bee (Bombus pensylvanicus De Geer 1773) in Canada."  Journal of Insect Conservation, vol. 23 (2019):  597-611. [ Bombus]

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Mitchell, Theodore B. “A Revision of the Genus Megachile in the Nearctic Region. Part VI. Taxonomy of Subgenera Argyropile, Leptorachis, Pseudocentron, Acentron and Melanosarus (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae).” Transactions of the American Entomological Society (1890-), vol. 63. (1937): 45–83.  [Megachile (Argyropile & Psudocentron)]

Mitchell, Theodore B. “A Revision of the Genus Megachile in the Nearctic Region. Part VII. Taxonomy of the Subgenus Sayapis (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae).” Transactions of the American Entomological Society (1890-), vol. 63.2 (1937): 175–206. [Megachile (Sayapis)]

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Moffat, Luciano and Roig-Alsina, Arturo. "Nidificacion comunal en la abeja Melissoptila pubescens (Smith) (Hymenoptera: Anthophoridae". Revista de la sociedad entomolgica argentina, vol. 51 (1991): 103-108. Print. [Melissoptila]  

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Neff, John L. and Beryl B. Simpson. “Oil-collecting structures in the Anthophoridae (Hymenoptera): morphology, function, and use in systematics.” Journal of the Kansas Entomological Society, vol. 54.1 (Jan. 1981): 95-123.  Print.  [Centris]

Neff, John L. and Beryl B. Simpson. “Partial bivoltinism in a ground-nesting bee: the biology of Diadasia rinconis in Texas (Hymenoptera, Anthophoridae).” Journal of the Kansas Entomological Society, vol. 65 (January 1992):  377-392. Print.  [Diadasia]

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Pemberton, Robert W. and Hong Liu.  “Potential of invasive and native solitary specialist bee pollinators to help restore the rare cowhorn orchid (Cyrtopodium punctatum) in Florida.” Biological Conservation, vol 141 (2008):  1758-1764.  [Centris]

Porter, Charles C. "Ecological notes on Lower Rio Grande Valley Xylocopa (Hymenoptera:  Anthophoridae). Florida Entomologist, vol. 64.1 (March 1981): 175-183.  Print.  [Xylocopa]

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Ramírez-Freire, Liliana, Glafiro José Alanís Flores, Ricardo Ayala Barajas, Humberto Quiroz Martínez and Carlos Gerardo Velazco Macías. , “The large carpenter bees (Hymenoptera:  Apidae:  Xylocopa spp.) of Nuevo Leon, Mexico, Journal of Pollination Ecology, vol. 7.1 (2012):  1-4.  Print.  [Xylocopa]

Ramos, Marina, Patrícia de Albuquerque and Márcia Rêgo. “Nesting habits of Melitoma segmentaria (Fabricius), Centris collaris (Lepeletier), Centris fuscata (Lepeletier) and Paratetrapedia gigantea (Fabricius) (Hymenoptera, Anthophoridae),” Revista Brasileira de Entomologia, vol. 37.1 (1993): 145-156.  Print.  [Melitoma]

Rasmussen, Claus, Boliver Rafael Garcete Barrett, and Rodrigo V. Goncalves. “South American entomology at the beginning of the 20th century (Hymenoptera, Lepidoptera, Diptera).”  Zootaxa, vol. 2282 (Nov. 2009): 1-50.   [Megachile]

Rau, Phil.“The biology and behavior of mining bees, Anthophora abrupta and Entechnia taurea.” Psyche, vol. 36 (1929): 155-181.  Print.  [Anthophora]

Rau, Phil. "The nesting habits of the little carpenter bee Ceratina calcarata." Annals of the Entomological Society of America, vol 21.3 (1928): 380-396.  [Ceratina]

Rau, Phil., “Notes on Captive Colonies and Homing of Bombus Pennsylvanicus De Geer."  Annals of the Entomological Society of America, vol. 17.4 (Dec. 1924):  368-381. [Bombus]

Raw, Anthony.  “An annotated catalog of the leafcutter and mason bees (Megachile) of the Neotropics.” Zootaxa, vol. 1601· (September 2007):  1-127. [Megachile]

Raw, Anthony, "The biology of two Exomalopsis species (Hymenoptera: Anthophoridae) with remarks on sociality in bees. Revista de biologia tropical, vol. 25.1 (1977):  1-11.  Print.  [Exomalopsis]

Raw, Anthony, “The nesting biology of nine species of Jamaican bees (Hymenoptera).” Revista Brasileira de Entomologia, vol. 28.4 (January 1984):  497-506.  [Megachile zaptlana]

Raw, Anthony.  “New combinations and synonymies of leafcutter and mason bees of the Americas (Megachile, Hymenoptera, Megachilidae).” Zootaxa, vol. 71 (September 2002): 1-43. [Megachile]

 

Rasmussen, Claus,  Bolivar Rafael Garcete-Barrett and Rodrigo B. Gonçalves, “Curt Schrotty (1874-1937):  South American entomology at the beginning of the 20th century (Hymenoptera, Lepidoptera, Diptera).”  Zootaxa, no. 2281 (2009): 1-50. [Schrottky]

Rehan, Sandra M.  “Small carpenter bees (Ceratina).” Encyclopedia of Social Insects, ed. Chris Stark. Springer. Feb. 22, 2020 Web. May 26, 2020.   < https://link.springer.com/referenceworkentry/10.1007%2F978-3-319-90306-4_106-1> [Ceratina]

Rehan, Sandra M. and Richards, Miriam H.  “The influence of maternal quality on brooad sex allocation in the small carpenter bee, Ceratina calcarata: bee maternal quality and sex allocution.  Ethology, vol. 116.9 (2010):  876-887.  Print  [Ceratina]

Rehan, Sandra M. and Richards, Miriam H. "Nesting biology and subsociality in Ceratina calcarata."  The Canadian Entomologist.  vol. 142 (Jan 2010):  65-73.  Print.  [Ceratina]

Rightmyer, Molly G., “A review of the cleptoparasitic bee genus Triepeolus (Hymenoptera: Apidae).”  Zootaxa, vol. 1710, (2008): 1-170.  Print.  Available at:   <https://entomology.si.edu/StaffPages/rightmyer/2008_zootaxa_Triepeolus.pdf>  [Triepeolus]

 

Roberts, Radclyffe B. “The Nesting Biology, Behavior and Immature Stages of Lithurge Chrysurus, an Adventitious Wood-Boring Bee in New Jersey (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae).” Journal of the Kansas Entomological Society, vol. 51.4 (1978):  735–745. [Lithurgus]

Robertson, Charles, “Phenology of inquiline and nest-making bees.  Psyche, vol. 33.4-5 (August-October 1926):116-120.  Print.  [Epeolus]

Rocha Filho, Leo Correia da, and Laurence Packer. “Phylogeny of the cleptoparasitic Megachilini genera Coelioxys and Radoszkowskiana, with the description of six new subgenera in Coelioxys (Hymenoptera:  Megachilidae). Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society, vol. 180 (October 2017): 353-413. Print. [Coelioxys]

Rodriguez, M. F. & Roig-Alsina. "Especies de Ancyloscelis Latreille del sur de Sudamérica (Hymenoptera, Apidae) con aparato bucal no modificado: nuevas especies y notas sinonímicas” [Species of Ancyloscelis Latreille of southern South America (Hymenoptera, Apidae), with unmodified mouthparts].  Revista del museo argentino de ciencias naturales, vol. 6.2 (2004): 351-361.  Print. [Ancyloscelis] 

Rosenthal, Susan. “Buzz pollination.”  Bay Nature.  Web. June 11, 2008. < https://baynature.org/articles/buzz-pollination/>.  Accessed 4 Jan. 2016.  [General]

Rozen, Jr., Jerome. “Comparative nesting biology of the bee tribe Exomalopsini (Apoidea, Anthophoridae).  American Museum Novitates, no. 2798 (1984).  Print.  Available at: <http://digitallibrary.amnh.org/handle/2246/5269>  [Exomalopsis]

Rozen, Jerome, Jr. (1983). “Nesting Biology of the Bee Svastra sabinensis (Hymenoptera, Anthophoridae).” Journal of the New York Entomological Society, vol. 91.3 (1983): 264-268.  Print.  [Svastra]

 

Rozen, Jr., Jerome G., and Marjorie S. Favreau. “Biological Notes on Colletes compactus compactus and Its Cuckoo Bee, Epeolus pusillus (Hymenoptera: Colletidae and Anthophoridae).” Journal of the New York Entomological Society, vol. 76.2 (June 1968): 106-111.  Print. [Epeolus]

Rozen, Jr., Jerome G., and C.D. MacNeill. "Biological observations on Exomalopsis (Anthophorula) chionura Cockerell, including a comparison of the biology of Exomalopsis with that of other anthophorid groups."  Annals of the Entomological Society of America, no. 50 (1957):  522–529.  Print.  [Exomalopsis]

 

Rozen, Jr., Jerome G., and Glenn Hall, “Nest Site Selection and Nesting Behavior of the Bee Lithurgopsis apicalis (Megachilidae: Lithurginae).”  American Museum Novitates, 2014(3796):1-24.  [Lithurgopsis]

Rozen, Jr., Jerome G, and Roy R. Snelling. “Ethology of the bee Exomalopsis nitens and its cleptoparasite (Hymenoptera: Anthophoridae.” Journal of the New York Entomological Society, vol. 94.4  (October 1986): 480-488.  Print. [Exomalopsis]

Sampson, Blair J., Robert G. Danka and Stephen J. Stringer. “Nectar robbery by bees Xylocopa virginica and Apis mellifera contributes to the pollination of rabbiteye blueberry.” Journal of Economic Entomology, vol. 97.3  (June 2004),  pp. 735- 740.  Print.   [Xylocopa]

Sansone, Chris and Michael Merchant. “Honey Bees in and Around Buildings.”  Texas a & M Agrilife Extension Service.   Web.    < https://www.agrilifebookstore.org/v/vspfiles/downloadables/E346%202.pdf>.  Accessed 28 Dec. 2018.  [Apis mellifera]

Sheffield, Cory S., “A new species of Megachile latreille subgenus Megachiloides (Hymenoptera, Megachilidae).”  Zookeys, vol. 283 (2013): 43-58. [Megachile]


Sheffield, Cory S.,  C. Ratti, Laurence Packer, & Terry L. Griswold.  “Leafcutter and mason bees of the genus Megachile Latreille (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae) in Canada and Alaska.” Canadian Journal of Arthropod Identification, vol. 18 (2011): 18: 1–107.  [Megachile]

Silva-Pereira, Isabel Alves-dos-Santos, Katia Sampaio Malagodi-Braga, and Felipe Andres Leon Contrera. “Forrageamento de Melissoptila thoracica Smith (Hymenoptera, Eucerini, Apoidea) em flores de Sida (Malvaceae). Revista brasileira de zoologia, vol. 20.3 (Sept. 2003): 427-432.  Print.  Available at:  < http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0101-81752003000300010> [Melissoptila]

Simpson, Beryl B., and John L. Neff. “Floral rewards: alternatives to pollen and nectar.” Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden, vol. 68.2 (1981): 301–322.  Print.  [Oil-collecting; Centris bees]

Snelling, R.R., “Contributions toward a revision of the New World nomadine bees. A partitioning of the genus Nomada (Hymenoptera: Anthophoridae). Contributions in Science, Natural History Musuem of Los Angeles County Museum, vol. 376 (1986), 1–32.   Print.[Nomada]. 

Snelling, R. R. (1983). “The North American species of the bee genus Lithurge (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae). Contributions in Science, Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County, vol. 343 (1983) 1-11. [Lithurgopsis]

Snelling R.R.,  “Studies on North American Bees of the Genus Hylaeus. 1. Distribution of the Western Species of the Subgenus Prosopis with Descriptions of New Forms (Hymenoptera: Colletidae)".  Contributions in Science, Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County, vol. 98 (1966): 1-18.  [Hylaeus]

​​Snelling, Roy, “Studies on the North American bees of the genus Hylaeus.  4. The subgenera Cephalylaeus, Metziella and Hylaeana (Hymenoptera: Colletidae).”  Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County Contributions in Science, vol. 144 (1968): 1-6.  Print.  [Hylaeus]

Snelling, R., “Studies on the Taxonomy and Distributions of American Centridine Bees (Hymenoptera: Anthophoridae).” Contributions in Science, no. 437 (1984): 1- 69.  Print.  [Centris]

Stabentheiner, Anton, Helga Pressl, Thomas Papst, Norbert Hrassnigg and Karl Crailsheim.  “Endothermic heat production in honeybee winter clusters.” Journal of Experimental Biology, vol. 206 (2003): 353-358.  Print.  [Apis mellifera]

Statman-Weil, Zoe, and Vicki Wojcik, “Centris pallida: Big bee, little bee: the mating strategy of a solitary bee.”  United States Department of Agriculture. Web.  <https://www.fs.fed.us/wildflowers/pollinators/pollinator-of-the-month/Centris-pallida.shtml>  Accessed 2 Nov. 2018.  [Centris]

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Toretta, Juan P., Diego Medan, Arturo Roig Alsina and Norberto H. Montaldo, “Visitantes flores diurnos del girasol (Helianthus annus Asterales:  Asteraceae) en la Argentina.” Revista de la sociedad entomologica argentina, vol. 69.1-2 (2010):  17-32.   Available here:  http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0101-81752003000300010> [Melissoptila]

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Urban, Danúncia. “Espécies novas de Melissoptila Holmberg da América do Sul e notas taxonômicas (Hymenoptera, Anthophoridae). Revista Brasileira de zoologia, vol. 15.1 (1998): 1-46. Print.  Available here:  https://www.researchgate.net/publication/262558957_New_species_of_Melissoptila_Holmberg_from_South_America_and_taxonomic_notes_Hymenoptera_Anthophoridae>  [Melissoptila]

Veliz-Ruiz, Rita I. and Allan H. Smith-Pardo. “New species of Exomalopsis and its associated cleptoparasite Nomada from Colombia with description of the nest (Hymenoptera: Apoidea: Anthophila: Apidae).  ISRN Entomology, vol. 2013, article ID 865059. (2013).  Print. [Exomalopsis]

Wallberg Andreas, Fan Han, Gustaf Wellhagen, Bjørn Dahle, Masakado Kawata, Nizar Haddad, Zilá Luz Paulino Simões, Mike H. Allsopp, Irfan Kandemir, Pilar De la Rúa, Christian W. Pirk and Matthew T. Webster.  “A worldwide survey of genome sequence variation provides insight into the evolutionary history of the honeybee Apis mellifera.Nature Genetics.  (24 August 2014).  Print.  Available at:  <https://www.nature.com/articles/ng.3077>  [Apis mellifera]

Warriner, M.D., “A range extension for the Large Carpenter Bee Xylocopa micans (Hymenoptera: Apidae) with notes on floral and habitat associations.” Journal of the Kansas Entomological Society, vol. 83 (2010): 267-269.  [Xylocopa]

Warrimer, Michael D, “Bumble bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae) of Texas:  historical distributions.” The Southwestern Naturalist, vol. 57.4 (December 2012 ): 442-445. [Bumble bees]

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Wcislo, William T., and Stephen Buchmann, “Mating behaviour in the bees, Dieunomia heteropoda and Nomia tetrazonata, with a review of courtship in Nomiinae (Hymenoptera: Halictidae).”  Journal of Natural History, Vol. 29(4), June 1995, pp. 1015-1027. [Nomia]

Wcislo, Willam T., and Michael S. Engel, “Social Behavior and Nest Architecture of Nomiine Bees (Hymenoptera: Halictidae; Nomiinae).” Journal of the Kansas Entomological Society, Vol. 69 (4), Supplement: Special Publication Number 2: Proceedings of the Eickwort Memorial Symposium, October 1996), pp. 158-167. [Nomia]

Williams, H.J., S. B. Vinson, Gordon. W. Frankie, R. E. Coville, and G. W. Ive, “Description, chemical contents and function of the tibial gland in Centris nitida and Centris trigonoides subtarsata (Hymenoptera: Anthophoridae) in the Costa Rican dry forest.” Journal of the Kansas Entomological Society, vol. 57 (1984): 50-54.  [Centris]

Wittmann, D. and B. Blochtein.  “Why males of leafcutter bees hold the females’ antennae with their front legs during mating.”  Apidologie,vol. 26 (1995): 181-195.

Wojcik,Victoria A., “Bees (Hymenoptera: Apoidea) Utilizing Tecoma stans (L.) Juss. ex Kunth (Bignoniaceae) in urban landscapes: a comparison of occurrence patterns and community composition in three cities in northwestern Costa Rica.” Journal of the Kansas Entomological Society, vol. 84.3 (July 2011): 197- 208.  Print.  [Ancyloscelis]

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Yañez-Ordoñez, Olivia.  "Biología de Lithurge (Lithurgopsis) littoralis) Cockerell 1917 (Apoidea  Megachilidae) en la Reserva Ecológica del Pedregal de San Ángel, D. F.” 1997.  UNAM (Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Facultad de Ciencias).  Mexico City, Mexico.  Thesis for Licenciatura in biology. [Lithurgopsis]

Zimmer, Carl.  “Unraveling the Pollinating Secrets of a Bee’s Buzz.” The New York Times. 13 July 2013.  Available at:    <http://www.nytimes.com/2013/07/11/science/unraveling-the-pollinating-secrets-of-a-bees-buzz.html?_r=0>.

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