WILD BEE ID GUIDE
References

GENERAL NOTE:  

Identifications of bees in this website's guide were made possible by the expertise and assistance of Dr. John L. Neff of the Central Texas Melittological Institute; Dr. John S. Ascher of the National University of Singapore; and Dr. Karen Wright of Texas A & M University.  We are additionally grateful to Dr. Neff for his generous help in supplying information on species behavior and range, and for recommending many of the resources listed below.

BOOKS:

Buchanan, Stephen L. and Gary Paul Nabhan. The Forgotten Pollinators.  Washington, D.C.:  Island Press, 1996.  Print.

Danforth, Bryan N, Robert L. Minckley, and John L. Neff.  The Solitary Bees:  Biology, Evolution, Conservation.  Princeton:  Princeton University Press, 2019.  Print.

Evans, Arthur V.  National Wildlife Federation Field Guide to Insects and Spiders of North America. New York:  Sterling Publishing, 2008.  Print.

Frankie, Gordon W., Robbin W. Thorp, Rollin E. Coville, and Barbara Ertter.  California Bees & Blooms. Berkeley:  Heyday, 2014.  Print. 

Goulson, Dave.  Bumblebees:  Behavior, Ecology, and Conservation, 2nd ed.  Oxford:  Oxford University Press, 2010. Print.

Hogue, Charles L.  Insects of the Los Angeles Basin, 3rd ed.  Los Angeles:  Los Angeles:  Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County, 2015. Print.

 

Holm, Heather. Pollinators of Native Plants:  Attract, Observe and Identify Pollinators and Beneficial Insects with Native Plants. Minnetonka, MN:   Pollination Press, 2014.  Print.

Koch, Jonathan, James Strange, and Paul Williams. Bumblebees of the Western United States.  Washington, D.C., United States Department of Agriculture Forest Service (with Pollinator Partnership), 2012. Print.  Available as pdf at website of the USDA  Forest Service.   <https://www.fs.fed.us/wildflowers/pollinators/documents/BumbleBeeGuideWestern2012.pdf>

Lebuhn, Gretchen. A Field Guide to the Common Bees of California, Including Bees of the Western United States. Berkeley:  University of California Press, 2013. Print. 

 

Marshall, Stephen A.  Insects:  Their Natural History and Diversity.   Buffalo:  Firefly Books, 2006.  Print.

Michener, Charles D.  The Bees of the World, 2nd ed.  Baltimore:  The Johns Hopkins University Press, 2007.  Print.

 

Michener, Charles D.  The Social Behavior of the Bees. Cambridge:  Harvard University Press, 1974.  Print.

Michener, Charles D., Ronald J. McGinley and Bryan N.. Danforth, The Bee Genera of North and Central America (Hymenoptera:  Apoidea).  Washington, D.C.:  Smithsonian Institution Press, 1994.  Print.

 

Milne, Lorus, and Margery Milne.  National Audubon Society Field Guide to Insects and Spiders.  New York:  Knopf,  2006. Print.

Mitchell, Theodore. B.  Bees of the Eastern United States, vol. 1.  Raleigh:  The North Carolina Agricultural Experiment Station, 1960.  Print.

 

Mitchell, Theodore. B.  Bees of the Eastern United States, vol. 2.  Raleigh:  The North Carolina Agricultural Experiment Station, 1960.  Print.

Richardson, Alfred.  Plants of the Rio Grande Delta.  Austin:  University of Texas, 1990.  Print.

Richardson, Alfred and Ken King.  Plants of Deep South Texas.  College Station:  Texas A & M University Press, 2011.  Print.

Williams, Paul, Robbin Thorp, Leif Richardson & Sheila Colla. Bumble Bees of North America. Princeton:  Princeton University Press, 2014.  Print.

 

Wilson, Joseph S., and Olivia Messinger Carril. The Bees in Your Backyard:  A Guide to North America's Bees.  Princeton:  Princeton University Press, 2016.  Print.  [This phenomenal popular guide offers an an ambitious sampling of both East and West Coast bees.]

Xerxes Society, and Eric Mader.  Attracting Native Pollinators:  Protecting North America's Bees and Butterflies:  The Xerces Soceity Guide.  North Adams, MA:  Storey Publishing, 2010.  Print.
 

GENERAL BEE IDENTIFICATION  DATABASES:

Ascher, John S., and John Pickering. Discover Life Bee Species Guide and World Checklist (Hymenoptera: Apidae: Anthophila. Discover Life.  Web. 1 Jan. 2019.  <www.discoverlife.org/20/q?search=Apoidea>.  

Bug Guide.  Iowa State University Department of Entomology. Web.  2019.  <http://bugguide.net> . 

Packer, Laurence and Julio A. Genaro and Cory S. Sheffield. The Bee Genera of Eastern Canada.  Canadian Journal of Arthropod IdentificationWeb.  25 September 2007.   <http://cjai.biologicalsurvey.ca/pgs_03/pgs_03_main.html>.   

Pascarella, John B.  The Bees of Florida.  University of Florida Department of Entomology and Nematology.  Web.  2 Jan. 2006. <http://entnemdept.ufl.edu/HallG/Melitto/Intro.htm>.  

PRINT  JOURNALS AND   WEB  RESOURCES  CONSULTED:

Alves-dos-Santos, Isabel. "Morphological and behavioral aspects of Ancyloscelis Latreille males (Anthophoridae, Apoidea)." Revista brasileira da zoologia, vol.16.2 (2010): 37-43. Print.  

Ashmead, William H. “Classification of the Bees, or the Superfamily Apoidea.” Transactions of the American Entomological Society, vol. 26.1 (1899): 49–100 at 61.  Print.  [Tetraloniella] 

Ayala, Ricardo, Terry Griswold and Stephen Bullock. “The Native Bees of Mexico.” Biological Diversity of Mexico:  Origins and Distribution, edited by T. P. Ramamoorthy, Robert Bye and Antonio.  Oxford:  Oxford University Press (1993), pp. 179 – 227.​

Baker J.R. “Taxonomy of Five Nearctic Subgenera of Coelioxys (Hymenoptera; Megachilidae).” The University of Kansas Science Bulletin, vol. 50.12, (1975):  649-730.  [Coelioxys]

Bees of Maryland: A Field Guide.  Washington, D.C.:  North American Bee Collaborative, 2017.  Print.  Available at:  <http://bio2.elmira.edu/fieldbio/beesofmarylandbookversion1.pdf>.  [General]

Buchmann, Stephen. “Bombus sonorous, the Sonoran Bumblebee.”  United States Department of Agriculture Forest Service.  Web.  < https://www.fs.fed.us/wildflowers/pollinators/pollinator-of-the-month/SonoranBumblebee.shtml>.  Accessed 2 Nov. 2018.  [Bumble bees:  Bombus sonorous]

Buchmann, Stephen. “The ecology of oil flowers and their bees.” Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics, vol. 18 (1987):  343–369. Print. [Centris]

“Bumble Bee Identification.”  Texas Parks & Wildlife.  Web. <https://tpwd.texas.gov/huntwild/wild/wildlife_diversity/nongame/native-pollinators/bumblebee-id.phtml>.  Accessed 2 Nov. 2018.  [Bumble bees]

 

“Bumble Bee Life Cycle.”  Texas Parks & Wildlife.  Web. < https://tpwd.texas.gov/huntwild/wild/wildlife_diversity/nongame/native-pollinators/bumblebee-life.phtml>.  Accessed 2 Nov.  2018.  [Bumble bees]

Burrows, Skylar, Morgan Christman, L. R. Spears, Allan Smith-Pardo, Steven. Price, Ricardo A. Ramirez, Terry Griswold and Amanda  J. Redford.  "Heriades."  Exotic Bee ID.  USDA APHIS Identification Technology Program (ITP) and Utah State University. Web. 2018.  Accessed January 3, 2020. <http://idtools.org/id/bees/exotic/factsheet.php?name=16626>  [Heriades]

“Buzz Pollination.”  Leonard Lab.  Web. < http://www.anneleonard.com/buzz-pollination/>.  Accessed 4 Jan. 2016.  [A great recording and video of a bumble bee practicing buzz pollination can be viewed here.]

Cameron, Syndey A., Jeffrey D. Lozier, James P. Strange, Jonathan B. Koch, Nils Cordes, Leellen F. Solter, and Terry L. Griswold. “Patterns of widespread decline in North American bumble bees.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, vol. 108.1  (11 January 2011): 662-667.  Print.  [Bumble bees]

Camillo, E., C.A. Garofalo, and J.C. Seranno, J.C. “Observacoes preliminarias sobre a biologia da Melitoma segmentaria (Hymenoptera, Anthophoridae).” Ciência e Cultura, vol. 40.7 (1988):  914.  Print.   [Melitoma]

Cane, James H., Terry Griswold, and Frank D. Parker, “Substrates and Materials Used for Nesting by North American Osmia Bees (Hymenoptera: Apiformes: Megachilidae).” Ann. Entomological Society of America, vol. 100.3 (2007): 350-358.  [Osmia]

“Carpenter Bees.”  United States Department of Agriculture Forestry Service. Web. <http://www.fs.fed.us/wildflowers/pollinators/pollinator-of-the-month/carpenter_bees.shtml>.   Accessed 21 July 2014. [Xylocopa]

"Centris Bees, the Bean Tree Pollinators."  Arizona:  Beetles, Bugs, Birds and More.  Web.  <http://arizonabeetlesbugsbirdsandmore.blogspot.com/2011/05/centris-bees-bean-tree-polinators.html>.  Accessed 18 Oct. 2018.  [Centris]

Chandler, L. D., and M. D. Heilman. “Hymenoptera associated with sunflower in the Lower Rio Grande Valley of Texas with notes on the relative abundance, visitation times and foraging.” Southwest Entomologist, vol. 7.3 (1982): 170-173. Print.  [Svastra]

Cockerell, T. D. A. Catalogo de las abejas de Mexico. [Catalog of the Bees of Mexico.].  Mexico:  Ofic. Tip. de la Secretaria de Fomento, 1899.  Print.  Available here:  https://archive.org/details/catalogodelasabe00cock/page/n1 [Melissoptila (Melissodes pinguis velutinellus]

Cockerell, T.D. A. "Diadasia Patton: a genus of bees.” The American Naturalist, vol. 39.466 (October 1905): 741-745.  Print. [Diadasia]

Cockerell, T. D. A. “New and little-known bees.  Transactions of the American Entomological Society, vol. 24 (1897): 144-162. Print.  [Melissoptila (Melissodes pinguis velutinellus)] 

Cockerell, T. D. A, "The North American bees of the genus Nomia. " Proceedings of the United States National Museum, Vol 28, 1911, pp. 297-298. [Nomia]

Cockerell, Wilmatte P. “Collecting Bees in Southern Texas.” Journal of the New York Entomological Society, vol. 25.3 (1917): 187–193. [Tetraloniella / Xenoglosses, Megachile chichimeca (Megachile disparipennis)] 

“Common name: African honey bee, Africanized honey bee, killer bee, scientific name:Apis mellifera scutellata Lepeletier (Insecta: Hymenoptera: Apidae).” Featured Creatures.  University of Florida Department of Entomology and Nematology.  Web.  . <http://entnemdept.ufl.edu/creatures/misc/bees/ahb.htm>  Accessed 26 Dec. 2018.  [Apis mellifera]

Cortopassi-Laurino, Marilda, Mariana Taniguchi, and Boff, Samuel, “Sobre ninhos de Melitoma segmentaria (Apidae: Apinae: Emporini) em formo artesenal  de pao. ”  Associacao paulista de apicultores criadores de abelhas melificas europeias (APACAME).  Web. . <http://apacame.org.br/site/revista/mensagem-doce-n-145-marco-de-2018/artigo-4/>.  Accessed 20 Nov. 2018.   [Melitoma] 

Cresson, Ezra Townsend. “Descriptions of new species of North American bees. Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, vol. 30 (1878): 181-221 at 209-210 and 216-217. Print.  [Melissoptila (Melissodes otomita and Melissodes pinguis);  Anthophora capistrata] 

Cresson, Ezra Townsend. “Descriptions of new North American Hymenoptera in the collection of the American Entomological Society.” Transactions of the American Entomological Society, vol. 7 (1878): 61-136.  Print.  [Exomalopsis, Megachile]

Cresson, Ezra Townsend.  Hymenoptera Texana. Philadelphia:  American Entomological Society (Nov. 1872).  Print.

Danforth, Brian N. 1996. "Phylogenetic analysis and taxonomic revision of the Perdita subgenera Macrotera, Macroteropsis, Macroterella and Cockerellula (Hymenoptera: Andrenidae)." University of Kansas Science Bulletin, vol. 55 (1996): 635-692. Print.  [Macrotera]

Dorchin, Achik, Bryan N. Danforth, and Terry Griswold, “A new genus of eucerine bees endemic to southwestern North America revealed in phylogenetic analyses of the Eucera complex (Hymenoptera: Apidae: Eucerini). Arthrophod Systematics and Phylogeny, vol. 76.2 (2018): 215-234. Print. [Tetraloniella; Eucera classification]

Dorchin, Achik., M.M. López-Uribe, C.J. Praz, Terry Griswold, and Bryan N. Danforth.  “Phylogeny, new generic-level classification, and historical biogeography of the Eucera complex (Hymenoptera: Apidae).” Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, vol. 119 (2018):  81-92. Print. [Tetraloniella; Eucera classification]

Droege, Sam, “Andrenidae, Colletidae, Melittidae:  A Guide to Their Identification in Eastern North America.”  Web.  9 Dec. 2008. <http://www.slideshare.net/sdroege/eastern-north-american-andrenidae-bees-taxonomy-distribution-identification-presentation>.  Accessed 1 Dec. 2018.

Droege, Sam, "Guide to the Bee Genera within Apidae of Eastern North America." Parts I and II.  Web.  27 Jan. 2009. <http://www.slideshare.net/sdroege/guide-to-the-bee-genera-within-apidae-of-eastern-north-america-part-1-presentation?next_slideshow=1> and https://www.slideshare.net/sdroege/guide-to-the-bee-genera-within-apidae-of-eastern-north-america-part-2-presentation>.  Accessed 1 Dec. 2018.

Droege, Sam, “Halictidae:  A Guide to Their Identification in Eastern North America.”  Web.  7 Jan. 2009. <https://www.slideshare.net/sdroege/identification-of-eastern-north-american-bee-genera-in-the-family-halictidae-presentation>.  Accessed 26 May 2019.

Droege, Sam, “Identification Guide to the Megachilidae Genera of Eastern North America”.  Web.  8 Jan. 2009.  <http://www.slideshare.net/sdroege/identification-guide-to-the-megachilidae-genera-of-eastern-north-america-presentation?related=1>. Accessed 1 Dec. 2018.

Eickwort, George C., Robert W. Matthews and James Carpenter. "Observations on the nesting behavior of Megachile rubi and M. texana with a discussion of the significance of soil nesting in the evolution of megachilid Bees (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae).  Journal of the Kansas Entomological Society, vol. 54.3 (July 1981): 557-570. Print. [Megachile texana]

Garrett, Felipe. “Mulher: Feliz, Danuncia Urban dedicou a vida à ciência:  Zoóloga fala sobre escolhas e a satisfação que a ciência trouxe à sua vida.”  RCP TV.  Rede Globo. July 3, 2014. Web.  December 10, 2018.  < http://redeglobo.globo.com/rpctv/noticia/2014/03/mulher-feliz-danuncia-urban-dedicou-vida-ciencia.html >  [About entomologist Danuncia Urban]

Geiser, S. W., “Notes on Some Workers in Texas Entomology, 1839-1880.” The Southwestern Historical Quarterly, Vol. 49, No. 4 (Apr., 1946), pp. 593-598. [Texas entomologist Gustave Belfarge].

Genaro, J. A. “Especie nueva de Melissoptila para Cuba y La Española (Hymenoptera: Apidae)”.  Avicennia, vol. 14 (2001): 61-64. Print.  Available at:  <http://www.academia.edu/1470845/Genaro_J._A._2001._Especie_nueva_de_Melissoptila_para_Cuba_y_La_Espa%C3%B1ola_Hymenoptera_Apidae_._Avicennia_14_61-64>  [Melissoptila]

Grahm, Jason R., Jamie Ellis, Glenn Hall and Catherine Zettel Nalen. “Anthophora abrupta Say.”  University of Florida, Department of Entomology and Nemotology.  Web.  <http://entnemdept.ufl.edu/creatures/misc/bees/anthophora_abrupta.htm>.  Accessed 15 Nov.  2018.  [Anthophora]

Griswold,  Terry L., and Charles D. Michner, "The Classification of the Osmiini of the Eastern Hemisphere (Hymenoptera, Megachilidae).  Journal of the Kansas Entomological Society, vol.70.3 (July 1997):  207-253.  Print.  [Heriades]

Holland, Jennifer S.  "The Plight of the Honey Bee."  National Geographic.  10 May 2013.  Print.  Available at:   <http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2013/13/130510-honeybee-bee-science-european-union-pesticides-colony-collapse-epa-science/ [Apis mellifera]

Holmberg, E. L. “Apidae Argentinae. Generis Psaenythia Gerstaecker.” Anales del museo nacional de Buenos Aires, vol. 31 (1921): 249-354.  Print.

Holmberg, E. L.  “Delectus Hymenopterologicus Argentinus.” Anales del museo nacional de Buenos Aires, vol. 2.3 (1903):  377-468.  Print.  [Svastra]

Holmberg, E. L. “Sobre abejas de Mendoza.” Apuntes de historia natural, vol. 1.1 (1909): 40. Print. 

“Honey Bees Originated from Asia, Not Africa.” Entomology Today.  25 Aug. 2014.  Entomological Society of America.  Web. <https://entomologytoday.org/2014/08/25/study-finds-honey-bees-originated-from-asia-not-africa/>.  Accessed 7 Dec. 2018.  [Apis mellifera]

Hurd, Paul D., Jr.  “Bamboo-Nesting Carpenter Bees (Genus Xylocopa Latreille) of the Subgenus Stenoxylocopa Hurd and Moure (Hymenoptera: Anthophoridae).” Journal of the Kansas Entomological Society,  vol. 51.4 (October 1978):  746-764.  Print. [Xylocopa strandi]

 

Hurd, Paul D., Jr., Wallace E. LaBerge, and E. Gorton Linsley.  "Principal  Sunflower  Bees  of  North  America  with  Emphasis  on the  Southwestern  United  States (Hymenoptera:  Apoidea)."   Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology, no. 310.  Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Press, 1980.  Print.  [Exomalopsis; Svastra sabinensis and Svastra petulca] 

Hurd, Paul D., Jr., and Charles D. Michner, "The Megachiline Bees of California (Hymenoptera:  Megachilidae)."  Bulletin of the California Insect Survey, vol. 3 (1955):  1-247.  Print.  [Heriades]

“Key to Green Halictid Diversity.”   University of Virginia.  Web.  21 June 2015. <http://people.virginia.edu/~thr8z/Bee_Diversity/Green_Halictid_Key/>.  Accessed 15 Dec. 2018.

Kopec, Kelsey, and Lori Ann Burd,  “Pollinators in peril:  A systematic status review of North American and Hawaiian native bees.”  Center for Biological Diversity.   Web.  February 2017.   <http://worldbeeproject.org/latest-posts/2017/8/23/pollinators-in-peril>.  Accessed October 31, 2018.  [General survey of United States Bee Species]

Krombein, Karl. "Another note on the nesting habits of Megachile texana Cresson." Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington, vol. 55 (1970): 84-85.  Print.  [Megachile]

Krombein, Karl, Trap-nesting Wasps and Bees:  Life Histories, Nests and Associates.  Washington, D.C.:  Smithsonian Press, 1967.  Print.  [Megachile]

LaBerge, Wallace E. “The genera of bees of the tribe Eucerini in North and Central America (Hymenoptera, Apoidea). American Museum novitates, no. 1837 (1957): 1-44 at 37-38. Print. [Melissoptila]

LaBerge, Wallace E. “Notes on the North and Central American bees of the genus Svastra Holmberg (Hymenoptera: Apidae).” Journal of the Kansas Entomological Society, vol. 31.4 (Oct. 1958): 266-273.  [Svastra]

LaBerge, Wallace E. “Records of the genus Svastra in North America with the description of a new species (Hymenoptera: Apidae).” Journal of the Kansas Entomological Society, vol. 36.1 (Jan 1963):   52-56. Print.  [Svastra]

LaBerge, Wallace. E. “Revision of the bees of the genus Tetraloniella in the New World (Hymenoptera: Apidae).” Illinois Natural History Survey Bulletin, vol. 36.3 (2001): 67-162.  Print.  The full text of this book is available here via Bug Guide:  < https://bugguide.net/node/view/1486124>   [Tetraloniella]

“Leafcutter Bees.”  Colorado State University Extension.  Web.  20 July 2014. <http://www.ext.colostate.edu/pubs/insect/05576.html>.  Accessed 20 Dec. 2018.  [Megachile] 

Linsley, E. Gorton. “Observations on some matinal bees at flowers of Cucurbita, Ipomoea and Datura in desert areas of New Mexico and Southeastern Arizona.” Journal of the New York Entomological Society, vol. 68.1 (March 1960): 13-20.  Print. [Melitoma; Ipomoea specialists]

Linsley, E. Gorton, MacSwan, and J.W., Michener, C.D.  “Nesting biology and associates of Melitoma (Hymenoptera, Anthophoridae).” Entomology [University of. California], no. 90 (1980): 1-45. Print.  [Melitoma]

"Lower Rio Grande Valley National Wildlife Refuge."  U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.  Web.    <https://www.fws.gov/refuge/Lower_Rio_Grande_Valley/wildlife_habitat.html>.  Accessed 4 Nov. 2018.  [Lower Rio Grande Valley Habitats]

Mahlman, Thiago, Juliana Hipólito, and Favízia F. de Oliveira.  “Male sleeping aggregation of multiple Eucerini bee genera (Hymenoptera: Apidae) in Chapada Diamantina, Bahia, Brazil.”  Biodiversity Data Journal, no. 2  (12 Sept. 2014).  Web. < https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4206784/> [Melissoptila]

Mamade Filho, Gerson Fraissat, Marina Abadia Ramos and Agnaldo Gonzaga Oliveira. “Contribuicao a biologia da Melitoma segmentaria (Anthophoridae)."  Revista brasileira de zoologia, vol. 7.3 (1990):  217-221  Print. [Melitoma]

Martina, Aline C., Leandro M. Santos, and Anamaria Dalmolin, “Danuncia Urban: a Life Devoted

to Entomology,” Ensaios sobre as abelhas da Regiao Neotropical.  Curitiba, Parana:  Editora UFPR, 2015.

Michener, Charles D.  "Bees of Panama." Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History, vol. 4.1 (1954):  1-176 at 27-30.  [Hylaeus]

 

Michener, Charles D. “The Brazilian honeybee.” BioScience, vol. 23.9 (1 Sept. 1973): 523–527.  Print.  [Apis mellifera] 

Michener, Charles D. “Evidence of cooperative provisioning of cells in Exomalopsis (Hymenoptera: Anthophoridae).” Journal of the Kansas Entomological Society, vol. 39.2 (April 1966):  315-317.  Print.  [Exomalopsis]

Michener, Charles D. “Nests of Paranthidium jugatorium in association with Melitoma taurea (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae and Anthophoridae).” Journal of the Kansas Entomological Society, vol. 48.2 (April 1975): 194-200.  Print.  [Melitoma]

Miksha, Ron. “The Man Who Made Killer Bees.  Bad Beekeeping Blog.  Web. 9 Sept. 2016.  <https://badbeekeepingblog.com/2016/09/09/the-man-who-made-killer-bees/>.  Accessed 26 Dec. 2018.  [Apis mellifera}

Minkley Bee Table. Bees and Floral Hosts of Rancho San Bernadino. Department of Biology, University of Rochester.  Web. <http://www.sas.rochester.edu/bio/labs/Minckley/minckley_table.php?genus=Diadasia&family=ALL >.  Accessed 19 Oct. 2018.  [Diadasia floral hosts] 

Mitchell, Theodore B. “A Revision of the Genus Megachile in the Nearctic Region. Part II. Morphology of the Male Sternites and Genital Armature and the Taxonomy of the Subgenera Litomegachile, Neomegachile and Cressoniella (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae).” Transactions of the American Entomological Society, vol. 61.1 (1935): 1–44 at 39. [Megachile]

Mitchell, Theodore B. “A Revision of the Genus Megachile in the Nearctic Region. Part VI. Taxonomy of Subgenera Argyropile, Leptorachis, Pseudocentron, Acentron and Melanosarus (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae).” Transactions of the American Entomological Society (1890-), vol. 63. (1937): 45–83.  [Megachile (Argyropile & Psudocentron)]

Mitchell, Theodore B. “A Revision of the Genus Megachile in the Nearctic Region. Part VII. Taxonomy of the Subgenus Sayapis (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae).” Transactions of the American Entomological Society (1890-), vol. 63.2 (1937): 175–206. [Megachile (Sayapis)]

Moffat, Luciano and Roig-Alsina, Arturo. "Nidificacion comunal en la abeja Melissoptila pubescens (Smith) (Hymenoptera: Anthophoridae". Revista de la sociedad entomolgica argentina, vol. 51 (1991): 103-108. Print. [Melissoptila]  

Moisset, Beatriz and Vicki Wojcik, “The Alkali Bee (Nomia melanderi).”  United States Department of Agriculture, Forest Service.  <https://www.fs.fed.us/wildflowers/pollinators/pollinator-of-the-month/alkali_bee.shtml>  [Nomia]

Moisset, Beatriz, and Vicki Wojcik, “The Pure Golden-Green Sweat Bee.”  United States Department of Agriculture Forest Service.  Web.  < http://www.fs.fed.us/wildflowers/pollinators/pollinator-of-the-month/augochlora_pura.shtml>.  Accessed 15 Nov.  2018. [Augochlora]

 

Mueller, Ulrich G., George C. Eickwort, and Charles F. Aquadro. “Evolution DNA fingerprinting analysis of parent-offspring conflict in a bee [Augochlorella striata]."  Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, vol. 91 (May 1994): 5143-5147.  Print.  [Augochlorella]

"Native Bee Pollination of Hybrid Sunflowers."  Xerxes Society.  Web.  
<http://www.xerces.org/wp-content/uploads/2008/10/factsheet_sunflower_pollination.pdf>.  Accessed 2 Jan. 2019. 

 

Neff, John L. and B.B. Simpson, “Nest biology of Osmia (Diceratosmia) subfasciata Cresson in central Texas (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae).”  The  Pan-Pacific Entomologist, vol. 68 (1992):  15-26.  Available at http://agris.fao.org/agris-search/search.do?recordID=US9168109 [Osmia]

Neff, John L. and Beryl B. Simpson. “Oil-collecting structures in the Anthophoridae (Hymenoptera): morphology, function, and use in systematics.” Journal of the Kansas Entomological Society, vol. 54.1 (Jan. 1981): 95-123.  Print.  [Centris]

Neff, John L. and Beryl B. Simpson. “Partial bivoltinism in a ground-nesting bee: the biology of Diadasia rinconis in Texas (Hymenoptera, Anthophoridae).” Journal of the Kansas Entomological Society, vol. 65 (January 1992):  377-392. Print.  [Diadasia]

Neff, John L. and Beryl B. Simpson. "Vibratile pollen-harvesting by Megachile mendica Cresson." Journal of the Kansas Entomological Society, vol. 61.2  (1988):  242-244.   Print.  [Megachile]

North, F. and H. Lillywhite. “The function of burrow turrets in a gregariously nesting bee.” The Southwestern Naturalist, vol. 25.3 (14 Nov. 1980):  373-378. Print.  [Diadasia turrets]

Onuferko, Thomas M., “A revision of the cleptoparasitic bee genus Epeolus Latreille for Nearctic species, north of Mexico (Hymenoptera, Apidae),” Zookeys, issue 755 (May 2018):  1-185.  Print.  Available at:   <https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5953965/>  [Epeolus]

Ordway, Ellen. “Aspects of the nesting behavior and nest structure of Diadasia opuntiae Ckll. (Hymenoptera: Anthophoridae).” Journal of the Kansas Entomological Society, vol. 57.2 (April 1984): 216-230. [Diadasia]

Papavero, Nelson and Sergio Ibanez-Bernal.  “Contributions to a History of Mexican Dipterology - Part I. Entomologists and their works before the Biologia Centrali-Americana.”  Acta zoologica mexicana, no. 84 (2001).  [Adrien Louis Jean de Sumichrast]

 

Porter, Charles C. "Ecological notes on Lower Rio Grande Valley Xylocopa (Hymenoptera:  Anthophoridae). Florida Entomologist, vol. 64.1 (March 1981): 175-183.  Print.  [Xylocopa]

Quinn, Mike, “Caterpillar Food Plants Native to the Rio Grande Valley of Texas.”  NABA South Texas. Web. 2004.   <https://www.naba.org/chapters/nabast/plants_info.pdf>. Accessed 1 Dec. 2018.  [Native plants of NBC area]

Ramírez-Freire, Liliana, Glafiro José Alanís Flores, Ricardo Ayala Barajas, Humberto Quiroz Martínez and Carlos Gerardo Velazco Macías. , “The large carpenter bees (Hymenoptera:  Apidae:  Xylocopa spp.) of Nuevo Leon, Mexico, Journal of Pollination Ecology, vol. 7.1 (2012):  1-4.  Print.  [Xylocopa]

Ramos, Marina, Patrícia de Albuquerque and Márcia Rêgo. “Nesting habits of Melitoma segmentaria (Fabricius), Centris collaris (Lepeletier), Centris fuscata (Lepeletier) and Paratetrapedia gigantea (Fabricius) (Hymenoptera, Anthophoridae),” Revista Brasileira de Entomologia, vol. 37.1 (1993): 145-156.  Print.  [Melitoma]

Rasmussen, Claus, Boliver Rafael Garcete Barrett, and Rodrigo V. Goncalves. “South American entomology at the beginning of the 20th century (Hymenoptera, Lepidoptera, Diptera).”  Zootaxa, vol. 2282 (Nov. 2009): 1-50.   [Megachile]

Rau, Phil.“The biology and behavior of mining bees, Anthophora abrupta and Entechnia taurea.” Psyche, vol. 36 (1929): 155-181.  Print.  [Anthophora]

Raw, Anthony, "The biology of two Exomalopsis species (Hymenoptera: Anthophoridae) with remarks on sociality in bees. Revista de biologia tropical, vol. 25.1 (1977):  1-11.  Print.  [Exomalopsis]

Rehan, Sandra M. and Miriam H. Richards. "Nesting biology and subsociality in Ceratina calcarata."  The Canadian Entomologist. Jan. 2010.   Bioone.org.  Web.   <http://www.bioone.org/doi/abs/10.4039/n09-056?journalCode=cent>. Accessed 7 Dec. 2018.  [Ceratina]

Rightmyer, Molly G., “A review of the cleptoparasitic bee genus Triepeolus (Hymenoptera: Apidae).”  Zootaxa, vol. 1710, (2008): 1-170.  Print.  Available at:   <https://entomology.si.edu/StaffPages/rightmyer/2008_zootaxa_Triepeolus.pdf>  [Triepeolus]

 

Roberts, Radclyffe B. “The Nesting Biology, Behavior and Immature Stages of Lithurge Chrysurus, an Adventitious Wood-Boring Bee in New Jersey (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae).” Journal of the Kansas Entomological Society, vol. 51.4 (1978):  735–745. [Lithurgus]

Robertson, Charles, “Phenology of inquiline and nest-making bees.  Psyche, vol. 33.4-5 (August-October 1926):116-120.  Print.  [Epeolus]

Rocha Filho, Leo Correia da, and Laurence Packer. “Phylogeny of the cleptoparasitic Megachilini genera Coelioxys and Radoszkowskiana, with the description of six new subgenera in Coelioxys (Hymenoptera:  Megachilidae). Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society, vol. 180 (October 2017): 353-413. Print. [Coelioxys]

Rodriguez, M. F. & Roig-Alsina. "Especies de Ancyloscelis Latreille del sur de Sudamérica (Hymenoptera, Apidae) con aparato bucal no modificado: nuevas especies y notas sinonímicas” [Species of Ancyloscelis Latreille of southern South America (Hymenoptera, Apidae), with unmodified mouthparts].  Revista del museo argentino de ciencias naturales, vol. 6.2 (2004): 351-361.  Print. [Ancyloscelis] 

Rosenthal, Susan. “Buzz pollination.”  Bay Nature.  Web. June 11, 2008. < https://baynature.org/articles/buzz-pollination/>.  Accessed 4 Jan. 2016.  [General]

Rozen, Jr., Jerome. “Comparative nesting biology of the bee tribe Exomalopsini (Apoidea, Anthophoridae).  American Museum Novitates, no. 2798 (1984).  Print.  Available at: <http://digitallibrary.amnh.org/handle/2246/5269>  [Exomalopsis]

Rozen, Jerome, Jr. (1983). “Nesting Biology of the Bee Svastra sabinensis (Hymenoptera, Anthophoridae).” Journal of the New York Entomological Society, vol. 91.3 (1983): 264-268.  Print.  [Svastra]

 

Rozen, Jr., Jerome G., and Marjorie S. Favreau. “Biological Notes on Colletes compactus compactus and Its Cuckoo Bee, Epeolus pusillus (Hymenoptera: Colletidae and Anthophoridae).” Journal of the New York Entomological Society, vol. 76.2 (June 1968): 106-111.  Print. [Epeolus]

Rozen, Jr., Jerome G., and C.D. MacNeill. "Biological observations on Exomalopsis (Anthophorula) chionura Cockerell, including a comparison of the biology of Exomalopsis with that of other anthophorid groups."  Annals of the Entomological Society of America, no. 50 (1957):  522–529.  Print.  [Exomalopsis]

 

Rozen, Jr., Jerome G., and Glenn Hall, “Nest Site Selection and Nesting Behavior of the Bee Lithurgopsis apicalis (Megachilidae: Lithurginae).”  American Museum Novitates, 2014(3796):1-24.  [Lithurgopsis]

Rozen, Jr., Jerome G, and Roy R. Snelling. “Ethology of the bee Exomalopsis nitens and its cleptoparasite (Hymenoptera: Anthophoridae.” Journal of the New York Entomological Society, vol. 94.4  (October 1986): 480-488.  Print. [Exomalopsis]

Sampson, Blair J., Robert G. Danka and Stephen J. Stringer. “Nectar robbery by bees Xylocopa virginica and Apis mellifera contributes to the pollination of rabbiteye blueberry.” Journal of Economic Entomology, vol. 97.3  (June 2004),  pp. 735- 740.  Print.   [Xylocopa]

Sansone, Chris and Michael Merchant. “Honey Bees in and Around Buildings.”  Texas a & M Agrilife Extension Service.   Web.    < https://www.agrilifebookstore.org/v/vspfiles/downloadables/E346%202.pdf>.  Accessed 28 Dec. 2018.  [Apis mellifera]

Silva-Pereira, Isabel Alves-dos-Santos, Katia Sampaio Malagodi-Braga, and Felipe Andres Leon Contrera. “Forrageamento de Melissoptila thoracica Smith (Hymenoptera, Eucerini, Apoidea) em flores de Sida (Malvaceae). Revista brasileira de zoologia, vol. 20.3 (Sept. 2003): 427-432.  Print.  Available at:  < http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0101-81752003000300010> [Melissoptila]

Simpson, Beryl B., and John L. Neff. “Floral rewards: alternatives to pollen and nectar.” Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden, vol. 68.2 (1981): 301–322.  Print.  [Oil-collecting; Centris bees]

Snelling R.R.,  “Studies on North American Bees of the Genus Hylaeus. 1. Distribution of the Western Species of the Subgenus Prosopis with Descriptions of New Forms (Hymenoptera: Colletidae)".  Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County Contributions in Science, vol. 98 (1966): 1-18. [Print.  [Hylaeus]

​​Snelling, Roy, “Studies on the North American bees of the genus Hylaeus.  4. The subgenera Cephalylaeus, Metziella and Hylaeana (Hymenoptera: Colletidae).”  Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County Contributions in Science, vol. 144 (1968): 1-6.  Print.  [Hylaeus]

Stabentheiner, Anton, Helga Pressl, Thomas Papst, Norbert Hrassnigg and Karl Crailsheim.  “Endothermic heat production in honeybee winter clusters.” Journal of Experimental Biology, vol. 206 (2003): 353-358.  Print.  [Apis mellifera]

Statman-Weil, Zoe, and Vicki Wojcik, “Centris pallida: Big bee, little bee: the mating strategy of a solitary bee.”  United States Department of Agriculture. Web.  <https://www.fs.fed.us/wildflowers/pollinators/pollinator-of-the-month/Centris-pallida.shtml>  Accessed 2 Nov. 2018.  [Centris]

Stephen, W. P. (1954). A Revision of the Bee Genus Colletes in America North of Mexico (Hymenoptera, Colletidae). The University of Kansas Science Bulletin, vol. 36.1 (1954): 149-527.  Print.  [Colletes]

Thorp, Robbin W.  “Ecology and Behavior of Anthophora edwardsii (Hymenoptera: Anthophoridae). ” The American Midland Naturalist, vol. 82.2 (1969): 321–337. Print.

 

Timberlake, P. H.  Review of North American Exomalopsis (Hymenoptera, Anthophoridae). Berkeley:  University of California Press, 1980.  Print.  [Exomalopsis and Anthohorula]

 

Timberlake, P. H. “A Revision of the species of Exomalopsis inhabiting the United States (Hymenoptera, Apoidea).”

Journal of the New York Entomological Society, vol. 55.2 (June 1947): 85-106. [Exomalopsis & Anthophorula]

Toretta, Juan P., Diego Medan, Arturo Roig Alsina and Norberto H. Montaldo, “Visitantes flores diurnos del girasol (Helianthus annus Asterales:  Asteraceae) en la Argentina.” Revista de la sociedad entomologica argentina, vol. 69.1-2 (2010):  17-32.   Available here:  http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0101-81752003000300010> [Melissoptila]

Tumlison, R. and Benjamin, K. "Occurrence of Two Rare Prairie Insects, Tetraloniella albata (Cresson) and Microstylum morosum (Loew), at Terre Noire Natural Area, Clark County, Arkansas." Journal of the Arkansas Academy of Science, vol. 65.29 (2011): 183-186. Available at:  <https://scholarworks.uark.edu/jaas/vol65/iss1/29> [Tetraloniella]

Urban, Danúncia. “Espécies novas de Melissoptila Holmberg da América do Sul e notas taxonômicas (Hymenoptera, Anthophoridae). Revista Brasileira de zoologia, vol. 15.1 (1998): 1-46. Print.  Available here:  https://www.researchgate.net/publication/262558957_New_species_of_Melissoptila_Holmberg_from_South_America_and_taxonomic_notes_Hymenoptera_Anthophoridae>  [Melissoptila]

Veliz-Ruiz, Rita I. and Allan H. Smith-Pardo. “New species of Exomalopsis and its associated cleptoparasite Nomada from Colombia with description of the nest (Hymenoptera: Apoidea: Anthophila: Apidae).  ISRN Entomology, vol. 2013, article ID 865059. (2013).  Print. [Exomalopsis]

Wallberg Andreas, Fan Han, Gustaf Wellhagen, Bjørn Dahle, Masakado Kawata, Nizar Haddad, Zilá Luz Paulino Simões, Mike H. Allsopp, Irfan Kandemir, Pilar De la Rúa, Christian W. Pirk and Matthew T. Webster.  “A worldwide survey of genome sequence variation provides insight into the evolutionary history of the honeybee Apis mellifera.Nature Genetics.  (24 August 2014).  Print.  Available at:  <https://www.nature.com/articles/ng.3077>  [Apis mellifera]

Wcislo, W. T. 1993. “Communal nesting in a North American pearly-banded bee, Nomia tetrazonata, with notes on nesting behavior of Dieunomia heteropoda (Hymenoptera: Halictidae: Nomiinae).” Annals of the Entomological. Society of America, Vol. 86, November 1993, pp. 813-821. [Nomia]

 

Wcislo, William T., and Stephen Buchmann, “Mating behaviour in the bees, Dieunomia heteropoda and Nomia tetrazonata, with a review of courtship in Nomiinae (Hymenoptera: Halictidae).”  Journal of Natural History, Vol. 29(4), June 1995, pp. 1015-1027. [Nomia]

Wcislo, Willam T., and Michael S. Engel, “Social Behavior and Nest Architecture of Nomiine Bees (Hymenoptera: Halictidae; Nomiinae).” Journal of the Kansas Entomological Society, Vol. 69 (4), Supplement: Special Publication Number 2: Proceedings of the Eickwort Memorial Symposium, October 1996), pp. 158-167. [Nomia]

Wojcik,Victoria A., “Bees (Hymenoptera: Apoidea) Utilizing Tecoma stans (L.) Juss. ex Kunth (Bignoniaceae) in urban landscapes: a comparison of occurrence patterns and community composition in three cities in northwestern Costa Rica.” Journal of the Kansas Entomological Society, vol. 84.3 (July 2011): 197- 208.  Print.  [Ancyloscelis]

"Yellow Bumble Bee."  The IUCN (International Union for Conservation of Nature) Redlist of Threatened Species.  Web.  <https://www.iucnredlist.org/species/21215132/21215225>.  Accessed 2 Nov. 2018.  [Bombus]

 

Yañez Ordoñez, Olivia,"Biologia de Lithurge Cockerell, (Lithurgopsis) littoralis 1917 (Apoidea: Megachilidae) en la reserva ecologica del Pedregal de San Angel"  [Biology of Lithurge Cockerell (Lithurgopsis) littoralis 1917 (Apoidea:  Megachilidae) in the Pedregal de San Angel Ecological Preserve]. (Doctoral Thesis). Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, México. (1997).  Accessed from:  <Recuperado de https://repositorio.unam.mx/contenidos/193766.>  [Lithurgopsis littoralis]

Zimmer, Carl.  “Unraveling the Pollinating Secrets of a Bee’s Buzz.” The New York Times. 13 July 2013.  Available at:    <http://www.nytimes.com/2013/07/11/science/unraveling-the-pollinating-secrets-of-a-bees-buzz.html?_r=0>.

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Last updated January 2020

 1-15-19